The most known requirements are:
- Schema extensions: Configuration Manager Active Directory schema extensions are not required for site server installation, but are recommended to fully support the use of all Configuration Manager features; TechNet
- WSUS SDK on site server: ConfigMgr software update points require at least WSUS v3.0 SP2. If using a remote software update point, the WSUS administration console must be installed on the site server;
- Microsoft RDC library registered: The Microsoft Remote Differential Compression (RDC) library must be registered for ConfigMgr site server installation; TechNet
- SQL Server service running account: The logon account for the SQL Server service cannot be a local user account or LOCAL SERVICE. You must configure the SQL Server service to use a valid domain account, NETWORK SERVICE, or LOCAL SYSTEM;
- Verify site server permissions to publish to AD: The site server might be unable to publish to Active Directory. The computer account for the site server must have Full Control permissions to the System Management container in its Active Directory domain; TechNet
- SQL Server version: ConfigMgr sites require a supported SQL Server version with required hotfixes for site database operations to succeed. Before Setup can continue, you must install a supported version of SQL Server on the specified site database server; TechNet
- SQL Server sysadmin rights: Either the user account running Configuration Manager Setup does not have sysadmin SQL Server role permissions on the SQL Server instance selected for site database installation, or the SQL Server instance could not be contacted to verify permissions;
- BITS installed: Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) is required for the management point and distribution point site system roles. Also, check if IIS/BITS services are running properly. Setup cannot continue until BITS is installed and enabled in the IIS settings;
Most other Prerequisite Checks can be found HERE. These are for ConfigMgr 2007, but will still be valid for 2012 installation.
Also check additional SQL Server requirements mentioned in my other blogpost: SQL Server requirements for ConfigMgr 2012 installation
After all this is done, it's possible to have a "All prerequisite rules pass successfully" status before ConfigMgr 2012 installation!
Update 25-6-2012: Clues added for installation!