Today I deployed applications for Application Catalog usage. During installation the following error message was showed: The software change returned error code 0x643(1603). This is just a generic MSI error and tells you very little. Within Event Viewer the following error message was showed: Administrative Privileges Required. For it seems the user doesn't has enough permissions here?
Within the application deployment, User Experience tab, you can choose Installation behavior. There's "Install for user", "Install for system", and "Install for system if resource is device; otherwise install for user". Mine was configured on last one. Changed that to "Install for system", and all my issues were gone.
So long story short, when deploying to "Install for user", the account must have permissions to run the command-line provided in the chosen deployment type. When deploying to "Install for system", this isn't needed, and deployment is done under SYSTEM permissions.
When looking on Microsoft Technet HERE and HERE it seems that administrator permissions are needed indeed. When using "Install for system" this isn't needed. Issue solved.